Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:47 am

Index to Flowers in the Order Laminales

Family: Acanthaceae (Acanthus Family)
Herbaceous plants. Leaves are simple, opposite. Flowers are two-lipped and showy.

Dyschoriste rogersii Blue Joy viewtopic.php?p=261310#p261310
Justicia anagalloides White Justicia viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170754#p170754
Justicia flava Yellow Justicia viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170755#p170755
Thunbergia sp. viewtopic.php?p=261371#p261371


Family: Lamiaceae (Salvia Family)
Herbaceous woody shrubs. Leaves opposite, aromatic. Square stems. Corolla of vie united petals, usually two-lipped.

Ballota africana Cat Herb, Cape Horehound viewtopic.php?p=195863#p195863
Leonotis nepetifolia Annual Wild Dagga, Lion’s Ear viewtopic.php?p=243831#p243831
Leonotis ocymifolia Klipdagga, Lion’s Ear viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170756#p170756
Plectranthus sp. Spurflower viewtopic.php?p=276659#p276659


Family: Oleaceae (Olive Family)
Trees, shrubs and climbers. Flowers are often insignificant, but sometimes showy and fragrant, such as Jasmine.

Jasminum fluminense fluminense Wild Jasmine viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=175277#p175277


Family: Orobanchaceae (Broomrape Family)
Striga elegans Elegant Witchweed, Large Witchweed viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=175356#p175356


Family: Pedaliaceae
Ceratotheca triloba Wild Foxglove viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170757#p170757
Dicerocaryum senecioides Devil Thorn, Stud Thorn, Elandsdoring viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170758#p170758
Harpagophytum procumbens Devil's Claw viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=177488#p177488
Sesamum alatum Winged-seed Sesame viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170759#p170759
Sesamum triphyllum Wild Sesame viewtopic.php?p=203994#p203994


Family: Plantaginaceae
Plantago lanceolata Narrow-leaved Ribwort, Buckhorn Plantain, Ribwort Plantain viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170760#p170760


Family: Scrophulariaceae (Antirrhinum Family
Herbaceous ornamentals, shrubs and climbers. Flowers brightly coloured, two-lipped.

Aptosimum albomarginatum Violet viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170761#p170761
Aptosimum elongatum Violet viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=170762#p170762
Jamesbrittenia aurantiaca Cape Saffron viewtopic.php?p=296051#p296051
Jamesbrittenia canescens Yellow Jamesbrittenia viewtopic.php?p=255330#p255330
Manulea altissima Keyhole Fingerphlox viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=176240#p176240
Nemesia fruticans Mauve Nemesia viewtopic.php?p=229285#p229285
Peliostomum virgatum Karoo Violet viewtopic.php?f=248&p=170763#p170763
Selago glutinosa Bitter Bush viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=171984#p171984
Tetraselago natalensis Usikisiki, Natal Blue Haze viewtopic.php?p=203000#p203000
Zaluzianskya villosa Southern Lilac Drumsticks, Blue Drumsticks viewtopic.php?p=195643#p195643


Family: Verbenaceae (Verbena Family)
Herbaceous plants. Shrubs, trees and climbers. Leaves opposite. Flowers irregular, arranged in racemose or cymose inflorescences. Corrolar tubular, four to five-lobed.

Lantana camara Tickberry viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=171984#p171985
Verbena bonariensis Wild Verbena, Purpletop Vervain, Tall Verbena viewtopic.php?f=248&t=3747&p=171984#p171986

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:47 am

White Justicia Justicia anagalloides
Order: Laminales. Family: Acanthaceae

Image © Super Mongoose
Vaalkop Dam Nature Reserve, North West Province

Image © mposthumus

Image © mposthumus
Kruger National Park, Lake Panic

Description
Perennial herb, growing upt to 0.5 m tall, with prostrate to suberect annual stems, stringing from a perennial rootstock. Stems usually with lines of long hairs across the length. Leaves ovate to obovate, variously hairy or nearly hairless. Inflorescences few-flowered, axillary, spike-like, usually one inflorescence per node. Corolla 6-8 mm long, white, with or without maroon lines on the lip. Flowering time throughout the year. Fruit a capsule, hairless except for a few hairs at the apex.

Distribution
Ethiopia, Somalia, Eastern DRC, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and South Africa (Limpopo, North West Mpumalanga, Gauteng, Freestate and KwaZulu-Natal).

Habitat
In grassland, disturbed and overgrazed areas and along roadsides, often in places which have been burnt. Common weed in overgrazed veld of Kruger National Park.

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:49 am

Yellow Justicia Justicia flava (Geelgarnaalbos)
Order: Laminales. Family: Acanthaceae

Image © mposthumus

Image © mposthumus
Kruger National Park, Orpen Dam

Description
Erect, branched perennial herb, up to 80 cm tall. Leaves opposite, lower leaves more or less broadly ovate (egg-shaped), often more narrowly lanceolate-elliptic higher on the stems, mostly hairless above, thinly hairy below. Flowering time from September to May. Flowers in terminal spikes, yellow, held in overlapping green bracts covered in long spreading hairs. The petals of the 2-lipped, tubular flowers are pale to greenish with a bright yellow lower lip. The fruit is a club-shaped capsule, which explodes to release the seeds. The seeds have water-absorbent hairs.

Distribution
Justicia flava is widespread and occurs all over tropical Africa, from tropical East Africa to South Africa (Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West).

Habitat
Grassland, woodland and scrub. Common species found in a number of different veld types especially in disturbed habitats, growing on a wide range of soil types.

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:50 am

Klipdagga, Lion’s Ear Leonotis ocymifolia (Rooidagga, Wildedagga)
Order: Lamiales. Family: Lamiaceae

Image © Lisbeth

Description
Slender shrub 1-3 m high, branching from a thick woody base, internodes 30-50 mm long, nodes prominent; stems square in cross section, hollow, deeply furrowed. Leaves opposite, petiolate, broadly ovate to almost round, less than 6 cm long, velvety to hairy below; margin crenate-dentate. Flowers (Sept-Mar) in 1-2 subspherical inflorescences per branch, separated by an internode up to 65 mm long. Corolla 32-45 mm long covered in dull to bright orange hairs with a single fringe of hairs inside at the base of the tube; fresh pollen orange in colour.

Distribution
Widespread in south-eastern and eastern Africa, northwards to Kenya. Not endemic to South Africa (Provincial distribution: Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape).

Habitat
Found on rocky outcrops and in well-drained soils on hillsides at altitudes of 1000-2000m in the Gauteng/Mpumalanga region, but descending to sea level in the Eastern and Western Cape Province. Sometimes in riverbeds and near evergreen forest.

Links: Swaziland's Flora Database

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:52 am

Wild Foxglove Ceratotheca triloba (Wildevingerhoedjie)
Order: Laminales. Family: Pedaliaceae

Image © Amoli
Kruger National Park

Image Image
© leachy, Kruger National Park

Image © Pumbaa
Kruger National Park

Description
Ceratotheca triloba is a tall annual or perennial herb. It branches from the base to develop a rounded shape with erect stems up to 2 m tall. The leaves are light green, slightly hairy, opposite, three-lobed and roughly toothed. The flowers are spaced singly on the long, sometimes hairy stems. Flower colour is white or pinkish light mauve. The stems are purplish on plants with mauve flowers and light green when the flowers are white. Each has a pointy calyx and green axillary bracts behind the large pendulous, tubular and lobed corolla. This corolla has a purplish striped lower lip that hangs down on the stem side of the flower. The flowering season is long, lasting from November to May, but only a few flowers are open at a time. The fruit is a hairy capsule with two prominent horns at the tip. When the fruit dries it releases small flat black seeds.

Distribution
Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West).

Habitat
It is thus a summer rainfall plant that occurs in sandy areas, in open grassland, often in disturbed areas characterised by animal movement and along roadsides.

Links: PlantZAfrica

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:53 am

Devil Thorn, Stud Thorn, Elandsdoring Dicerocaryum senecioides
Order: Laminales. Family: Pedaliaceae

Image © Super Mongoose
Vaalkop dam Nature Reserve

Image © mposthumus
Kruger National Park, Pretoriuskop area

Image © Twigga
Kruger National Park, Nwanetsi area

Description
Mat-forming perennial herb with annual creeping stems. Stems almost hairless or somewhat pubescent. Leaves opposite, usually narrowly ovate in outline, up to 2.7 cm long, often more or less deeply pinnately lobed; margin coarsely crenate-serrate. Flowering time: Dec - Apr. Flowers solitary, axillary, very pale to deep pink or mauve, usually with darker spots on the lower lip and in the throat. Fruit broadly elliptic in outline, 16-27 mm long, hairless or slightly pubescent, with 2 erect spines on a distinctly raised upper surface.
Similar species: This species is very similar to D. eriocarpum, which differs in the smaller, broadly ovate leaves which are never lobed and almost circular fruits, which are densely covered in hairs, particularly when young.

Distribution
Malawi, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa (Provincial distribution: Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West).

Habitat
Favouring bare ground and poor soils. Grassland.

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:55 am

Winged-seed Sesame Sesamum alatum
Order: Lamiales. Family: Pedaliaceae

Image © leachy
Kruger National Park

Description
Erect annual herb, 50-150 cm. Leaves heteromorphic: lower leaves 3-5-foliolate or very deeply divided with narrow, linear-lanceolate lobes; upper leaves simple, glabrous, except for some mucilage glands; margin entire. Flowers 3.5 cm in diameter, reddish pink with darker lines in the lower corolla lobe. Fruit a obconical, beaked capsule. Seeds winged at both ends.

Distribution
Widely distributed in tropical Africa, occurring in dry regions from Senegal to South Africa (Provincial distribution: Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West).

Habitat
In sandy soils along roadsides, in grassland and river beds.

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:56 am

Narrow-leaved Ribwort, Buckhorn Plantain, Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata (Smalweeblaar)
Order: Laminales. Family: Plantaginaceae

Image © Amoli

Image © Amoli

Image © Amoli
Marievale Bird Sanctuary, Gauteng

Description of the family Plantaginaceae: Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves all in radical rosettes, without stipules. Inflorescence a spike, terminating a scape. Flowers small, inconspicuous, subtended by a bract, usually 4-merous, sessile. Corolla gamopetalous, scarious, 3-4 lobed. Ovary superior. Fruit a capsule.

Description
Plantago lanceolata is a perennial herb with leaves in a dense basal rosette. Leaves linear-lanceolate, scarcely toothed with 3-5 strong parallel veins narrowed to short petiole. Leafless, silky, hairy flower stems (10–40 cm). Many stems arise with single terminal oblong inflorescence of many small flowers each with a pointed bract; flowers minute 4 mm, creamy-yellow.

Distribution
Not endemic to South Africa. Native of Europe, North Africa, North and Central Asia; widely introduced to many other countries. Provincial distribution in South Africa: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape.

Habitat
In disturbed places.

Links: ARKive

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 2:58 am

Violet sp. Aptosimum albomarginatum (Witstamviooltjie)
Order: Lamiales. Family: Scrophulariaceae

Image © Lisbeth

Image © Lisbeth
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Description
Erect or decumbent dwarf shrub up to 30 cm. tall, densely branched or compact from base; stem woody, white to pale brown glossy, glabrous to sparsely setose-pilose; branches densely leafy. Leaves 4–25 x 3 mm., linear-oblanceolate, acute or obtuse, spinous pointed, glabrous above, glabrous beneath or with few long, white hairs in area of midrib, margin thickened, white cartilaginous. Flowers axillary, sessile to subsessile; bracts or attendant leaves c. 5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, similar to leaves. Calyx 7 mm. long, lobes 1 mm. wide, joined at base for about 2.5 mm., linear-lanceolate, acute, externally sparsely long-setose mainly on median nerve, margin long ciliate-setose. Corolla pale blue to purple; tube 14–20 mm. long, narrowed towards base, sparsely to subdensely short pilose without; lobes broadly ovate to subrotund. Lower stamens about half as long as corolla tube, anthers sterile; all anthers glabrous, subreniform. Style minutely pubescent below, exceeding corolla tube. Capsule 5.5–6 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, obovoid-cylindrical, subcompressed, prominently parallel-nerved. Seeds c. 1.5 x 1 mm.; testa reticulately wrinkled.

Distribution
South Africa (Northern Cape, North West Province), Namibia and Botswana.

Habitat
On Kalahari sand dunes. Damp areas surrounding pans 1150–1200 m.

Re: Africa Wild Flower Book - Order Laminales

Mon Jan 20, 2014 3:00 am

Violet sp. Aptosimum elongatum
Order: Lamiales. Family: Scrophulariaceae

Image

Image

Image

Image
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Gharagab exit road

Aptosimim spp are woody herbs or subshrubs. Leaves alternate, 1-veined, entire. Flowers axillary, solitary or in short cymes. Calyx 5-lobed; tube campanulate. Corolla 5-lobed; lobes rounded. Stamens 4.
There are 20 species in South Africa, all with similar flowers. They are difficult to distinguish and best told by leaves.

Description of the genus
Perennial undershrubs but sometimes flowering in herbaceous state, low, with or without elongated and often procumbent branches, sometimes cushion-forming or tufted, mostly woody at base. Leaves alternate, usually densely crowded on long or short shoots, linear, lanceolate, elongated or spathulate, entire, 1-nerved, midrib sometimes persistent and spinescent. Flowers solitary in leaf axils or in short axillary cymes, sessile or subsessile, bibracteolate, dark blue to violet. Calyx tubular, 5-lobed to various depths; tube campanulate; lobes linear to deltoid or ovate, +/- valvate in bud. Corolla tubular, slightly irregular, 5-lobed; tube elongated, much longer than calyx, widening suddenly above short, narrow base into a long throat, mouth wide; limb patent, much shorter than tube, oblique; lobes free, rounded, +/- equal, 2 posterior outside in bud. Stamens 4, didynamous, included, arising in lower part of corolla tube; filaments filiform; anthers of shorter, posterior pair smaller than those of longer, anterior pair and sometimes sterile, anthers bithecate, transverse, ciliate-hispid; thecae confluent so dehiscing along a single transverse line. Nectary usually saucer-shaped. Ovary bilocular; ovules many; style filiform, exceeding stamens; stigma small, obscurely bidentate, emarginate or subcapitate. Fruit a thick-walled capsule, obovoid, +/- globose, broadly ovoid or ovoid, upper part compressed at right angles to septum, emarginate, septicidal but opening only at top, often persistent; valves usually bifid. Seeds many, obovoid or flattened-globose; testa adpressedly reticulate.

Description
Aptosimum elongatum is a small procumbent shrub, widely spreading; branches slender, up to 60 cm long, densely covered with white hairs. Leaves 10–18 x 3.5–5 mm, oblanceolate to broadly obovate, above covered with hairs. Flowers deep blue to purple.

Distribution
Namibia, South Africa (Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West).

Habitat
Scrub and open wooded grassland, mainly on deep Kalahari Sand (sandy soils, on sand dunes or along roads).

Image © GavinW
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Lower Dune Road