AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 5:05 pm

Milkweed Bug Oncopeltus famelicus
Superfamily: Lygaeoidea. Family: Lygaeidae. Subfamily: Lygaeinae

Image © BluTuna

Image © BluTuna
Garden in Johannesburg

Description
Large (body length 14 mm). Boldly marked in black and orange with black rhomboidal spot at the end of the body and a black band in the middle.

Distribution
Widely distributed in South Africa, except the Northern Cape and northern part of the Western Cape. Range extends into East Africa.

Habitat
Open grassland, road verges, forest margins, gardens, agricultural land.

Biology
Feeds on seeds of Urticaceae (Pouzolzia), Triumfetta, granadilla, cotton and sweet potatoes, which it damages. Most often found feeding on pods of the Common Milkweed (Asclepias fruticosus).

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 5:23 pm

Milkweed Bug Spilostethus furculus
Family: Lygaeidae. Subfamily: Lygaeinae

Image
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Distribution
This Milkweed Bug is widely distributed in the Afrotropical Region and in the southern Palaearctic.

Diet
It feeds on a large variety of plants.

Links: http://www.zandvleitrust.org.za/pdf/zvt ... 202011.pdf

Africa Wild Insect Book Hemiptera, Heteroptera Typical Bugs

Tue Oct 28, 2014 5:44 pm

Milkweed Bug, Soldier Bug Spilostethus pandurus
Family: Lygaeidae. Subfamily: Lygaeinae

Image

Image
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Description
Spilostethus pandurus is a species of medium sized (body length 13 mm) ground bugs. Easily recognized by a pattern of red bars and dots on a black to grey background. A white spot on the light brown wing membrane is characteristic.
Pale sanguineous in colour. A spot present at inner margin of each eye. Pronotum with two large obscure ochraceous spot on basal area. Scutellum with a small spot
near apex of clavus. A transverse fascia present on corium, pro-sternum, abdominal segmental margins and with stigma spots. Membrane black with a central white spot and two crescent white markings on membranal suture. Labium reaches 2nd coxae. Legs black, femora distinctly spined beneath.

Distribution
Southern Europe, southern Asia including China and India, tropical and subtropical Africa including South Africa.

Habitat
There are 8 species in South Africa distributed thru various veld types, usually grassland, where it occurs on flower heads of yellow daisies. Common and widespread.

Biology
Feeds on various milkweeds (Asclepias), related Calotropis, and on indigenous Solanum.
The insect possesses two dorsolateral prothoracic glands, the secretion of which has been proven repugnant and unpalatable to predators. They can make use of the cardiac glycosides present in the food-plant and incorporate them in their defense gland secretion. The bug seems also capable of synthesizing such chemical principals if not readily available in the food-plant juices.
Eggs of Spilostethus pandurus are broadly oval and pearly white, becoming purple just before hatching. Females lay up to 10 egg batches underneath fallen leaves or flowers. Each batch contains 50-60 eggs. The nymphs are a conspicuous yellow-orange to orange with brown markings.

Agricultural Importance
Minor pest of sunflowers, eating the green seeds. Also eat cotton, citrus, sorghum, millet, mangoes, sweet potatoes, apricots and maize.

Image © Bush Brat
Kruger National Park, Olifants camp

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhopalidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 5:44 pm

Rhopalidae (Scentless Plant Bugs)

Rhopalidae, or scentless plant bugs, are a family of true bugs. They differ from the related coreids in lacking well-developed scent glands. They are usually light-colored and smaller than the coreids. Some are very similar to lygaeids, but can be distinguished by the numerous veins in the membrane of the hemelytra. They live principally on weeds, but a few are arboreal. All are plant feeders. Currently 18 genera and over 200 species of rhopalids are known.

Soapberry Bugs specifically encompass all species within the subfamily Serinethinae. Serinethinae contains three genera: Jadera, Leptocoris, Boisea.

Leptocoris is the largest genus of the soapberry bug subfamily. The 41 species of this genus are distributed throughout Africa, South Asia, and Oceania and are thought to have originated in Africa, where the greatest diversity of Leptocoris species are found. Members of this genus are large-bodied and have short, wide pronota.

Links: Soapberry Bugs of the World

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhopalidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 5:52 pm

Soapberry Bug Leptocoris mutilatus
Superfamily: Coreoidea. Family: Rhopalidae. Subfamily: Serinethinae

Image © BluTuna
Garden in Johannesburg

Image © BluTuna
Nymph

Description
About 11 to 16 mm in length (brachtyperous about 11–12 mm). Scarlet red or reddish orange with black membrane; scutellum may be completely black, completely red, or red outlined in black. Corium, clavus, and pronotum may have a greenish tint but always lack black undertones. The pronotum is red and often and ochre color, but the sides and the posterior portion are always red. Pronotum is relatively long and slender; it also has a distinct longitudinal ridge that passes through the center and becomes finer posteriorly. Ventral side is red, including the coxae. Appendages are brownish black. The antennae are brown.

Distribution
Central, Eastern and Southern Africa.

Links: A revision of the African species of the genera Leptocoris HAHN, 1833, and Boisea KIRKALDY, 1910; and notes on other species of those genera. By U. Göllner-Scheiding; Soapberry Bugs of the World - Leptocoris mutilatus

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 6:03 pm

Pyrrhocoridae (Red Bugs, Fire Bugs, Cotton Stainers)
Medium sized (body length 5-20 mm). Many are red-coloured and are known as red bugs and some species are called cotton stainers because their feeding activities leave an indelible yellow-brownish stain on cotton crops. Only 13 out of the 18 genera now recognised in Africa can be said to be brightly colored; the other five genera are dark in general coloration. Pyrrhocoridae have the sixth visible ventral abdominal segment entire in both sexes. The membrane of the forewing has one or two cells from which about 7-8 branching veins emerge that may have branches that fuse together (anastomose) while the main veins reach the margins of the wing. They have three tarsal segments. The scutellum is small and triangular. The antennae are made up of four segments with the second segment longer than the third. The beak-like mouthpart or rostrum has four segments and tip reaches at least the base of the middle pair of legs.
Members of this family can be quickly separated from the family Lygaeidae by the lack of ocelli (simple eyes).

The following characters are used to typify the family:
- Abdominal trichobothria present
- Scutellum small, shorter than the clavus, a distinct claval commisure present
- Antennophores visible from above
- Antennae four segmented
- Ocelli absent
- Membrane of the hemelytra usually with two basal cells, from which 7 - 8 branching longitudinal veins extend to the apical margin
- Medium to large, brightly colored, usually phytophagous bugs

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 6:11 pm

Red Bug Cenaeus carnifex
Superfamily: Pyrrhocoroidea. Family: Pyrrhocoridae

Image © Tina
Western Cape

Description
A small oval species (body length 9 mm), uniformly red or orange with black legs and antennae. Anterior and posterior discs of pronotum of different textures and colors separated by a row of punctures. The red eyes are prominent, not sessile. Short-winged forms common.

Distribution
Eastern coastal regions of South Africa and around Cape Town.

Habitat
Lush vegetation of forest margins and gardens.

Biology
Usually encountered in groups on seed heads of herbaceous plants, often in mated paris.

Image © arks
Darling, Western Cape

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 6:35 pm

Acanthosomatidae (Shield Bugs)
Acanthosomatidae is a cosmopolitan family of Hemiptera, commonly named “shield bugs”. They are sometimes treated as a subfamily of Pentatomidae. The Acanthosomatidae have 5-segmented antennae; tarsi are 2-segmented; scutellum not reaching end of abdomen; abdominal sternum with a long, anteriorly directed spine. The haed is laterally keeled.
They are mainly phytophagous (feeding on plant sap).

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 6:41 pm

Bark Stink Bug Coenomorpha sp.
Superfamily: Pentatomoidea. Family: Acanthosomatidae/Pentatomidae

Image © BluTuna
Mid instar larva (Johannesburg garden)

Description
Medium-sized. Body length of up to 20 mm and the body is flattened, brown or streaked with grey, sometimes with light orange marbling and stripes on edge of abdomen. The nymphs are oval, convex and covered in a loose greyish/blueish white waxy layer.

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Dinidoridae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 7:14 pm

Dinidoridae (Cucumber Bugs)
Dinidoridae is a a relatively small family of pentatomoids, found in tropical Asia, Africa, Australia, and South America. Dinidorids are large, ovoid, robust species. The head is laterally keeled. The antennae are 4 or 5-segmented. The scutellum is triangular, medium-sized, and does not cover the corium.