Africa Wild Insect Book Hemiptera, Heteroptera Typical Bugs

Wed Jun 11, 2014 4:29 pm

Africa Wild Insect Book: Order Hemiptera, Infraorder Heteroptera (Typical Bugs)

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Index to Hemiptera, Infraorder Heteroptera

Wed Jun 11, 2014 4:57 pm

Index to Hemiptera, Infraorder Heteroptera
(Arranged according to Tree of Life Web Project)

Superfamily Gerroidea
Family Gerridae (Pondskaters)
Limnogonus sp. Pond Skater ... 80#p203880
Pond Skater ... 72#p232972

Superfamily Notonectoidea
Family: Notonectidae (Backswimmers)
Enithares sp. Backswimmer ... 75#p232975

Superfamily: Coreoidea
Superfamily: Lygaeoidea
Family: Berytidae (Stiltbugs)
Metacanthus sp. Stilt Bug ... 77#p232977
Family: Lygaeidae (Seedbugs)
Oncopeltus famelicus Milkweed Bug ... 80#p232980
Spilostethus furculus Milkweed Bug ... 85#p232985
Spilostethus pandurus Milkweed Bug ... 88#p232988
Family: Rhopalidae (Scentless Plant Bugs)
Leptocoris mutilatus Soapberry Bug ... 92#p232992
Superfamily: Pyrrhocoroidea
Family Pyrrhocoridae
Cenaeus carnifex Red bug ... 97#p232997
Superfamily: Pentatomoidea (Shieldbugs)
Family: Acanthosomatidae
Coenomorpha sp. Bark Stink Bug ... 07#p233007
Family: Dinidoridae (Cucumberbugs)
Coridius nubilis Stink Bug ... 25#p233025
Family: Scutelleridae
Calidea dregii Rainbow Shield Bug, Blue-green Cotton Bug ... 38#p233038
Steganocerus multipunctatus Ladybird Bug ... 40#p233040
Family: Pentatomidae
Acrosternum millierei Green Stink Bug ... 65#p233065
Agonoscelis puberula African Cluster Bug ... 74#p233074
Basicryptus sp. Shield Bug ... 76#p233076
Nezara viridula Green Vegetable Bug, Southern Green Shieldbug ... 78#p233078
Pseudatelus/Atelocera notatipennis Stink Bug ... 79#p233079
Pseudatelus sp., Atelocera sp. Stink Bug ... 80#p233080

Superfamily: Reduvioidea (Assassinbugs)
Family Reduviidae
Subfamily Harpactorinae
Phonoctonus sp. Cotton-stainer Assassin ... 82#p233082
Subfamily Ectrichodiinae
Millipede Assassin Bug ... 79#p258679
Subfamily Holoptilinae
Holoptilus nebulosus Ant wolf or Feather-legged Bug ... 66#p304266

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerridae

Wed Jun 11, 2014 5:57 pm

Family Gerridae (Pond Skaters, Water Striders)
The Gerridae, known as water striders or pond skaters, spend nearly their entire lives on the open water surface. They are medium to large (body length 5-20 mm) with compact bodies and very elongate legs that row them across water at high speed. Only the middle legs are used for locomotion. Fore legs are held close to the body. The forelegs are used for feeding and mating. Vibrations from struggling prey are detected through the fore legs, as are vibrational signals from potential mates. The fore legs also used to subdue prey. Claws are bent behind tarsi, and tips of legs carry a patch of water-repellant hairs. Often wingless, but winged forms fly well.
One main characteristic that sets gerrids and other true bugs apart from other insects is that the front wing is only half functional. Rather than using it for flight, it acts as a membranous covering and the thickened part is by where claws develop. Consistent with the classification of Gerridae as true bugs, gerrids have a mouthpart evolved for piercing and sucking, gerrids distinguish themselves by having the unique ability to walk on water. Gerridae, or water striders, are anatomically built to transfer their weight to be able to run on top of the water's surface. As a result, one could likely find water striders present in any pond, river, or lake. Scientists have identified over 1,700 species of gerrids, 10% of them being marine.

Checklist: The Pondskaters (Hemiptera: Gerridae) of South Africa

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerridae

Wed Jun 11, 2014 7:01 pm

Pond Skater possibly Limnogonus sp.
Family: Gerridae

Image © BluTuna
Adult. Kruger National Park, Mopani

Pond skaters of the genus Limnogonus are usually dimorphic. Body elongated, dark above with distinct yellow lines, pronotal lobe with pale median, longitudinal stripe throughout, pale lateral stripes continue anteriorly. Antennae are long and slender. Forewings clearly surpassing end of abdomen in both sexes.

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerridae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 3:28 pm

Pond Skater
Family: Gerridae

Image © BluTuna
Garden in Johannesburg

Image © BluTuna

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Notonectidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 3:54 pm

Family Notonectidae (Backswimmers)
Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down. They are small to medium-sized (body length 4-12 mm) voracious predators. Unlike corixids, they orientate with the convex and keel-shaped underside facing upwards. They swim using the fringed hind legs.
They trap air in pockets in the abdomen and can stay submerged for up to six hours. These aquatic insects typically spend their time at the water's surface, using their abdomen and legs to cling to the underside of the surface tension. They are all aquatic predators, up to nearly 2 cm in size. Their dorsum convex is light colored without cross striations. Their front tarsi are not scoop-shaped and their hind legs are fringed for swimming. Backswimmers are predators and attack prey as large as tadpoles and small fish. They inhabit still freshwater, e.g. lakes, pools, marshes, and are sometimes found in garden ponds and swimming pools. Although primarily aquatic, they can fly well and so can disperse easily to new habitats. Often found in groups, in shaded positions in slow-flowing or stagnant water, facing at a gentle angle downwards. Dive if disturbed, but can also leap out of the water and fly away.
There are two subfamilies, Notonectinae and Anisopinae, each containing four genera. Individuals that are in the subfamily Notonectinae are distinguishable from their Anisopinae relatives by their 4-segmented beak and antennae. Insects from the subfamily Notonectinae are also larger, approximately 10–16 mm in length.

The most common genus of backswimmers is Notonecta - streamlined, deep-bodied bugs up to 16 mm long, green, brown or yellowish in colour. As the common name indicates, these aquatic insects swim on their backs, vigorously paddling with their long, hair-fringed hind legs.

Enithares backswimmers are medium-sized (body length 12 mm), robust, with dark red eyes, white thorax, and grey wings. Body broadest at head, tapering towards end. Underside uniformly dark brown.

Common backswimmers of the genus Anisops are mostly medium-sized (body length 11 mm), parallel-sided and slender, with triangular orange scutellum.

Links: The Backswimmers (Hemiptera- Notonectidae) of South Africa

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Notonectidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 3:56 pm

Backswimmer possibly Enithares sp.
Family: Notonectidae

Image © BluTuna

Image © BluTuna
Garden in Johannesburg

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Berytidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 4:30 pm

Family Berytidae (Thread Bugs, Stilt Bugs)
The Berytidae are members of the Lygaeoidea. Small and slender, very delicate, with elongate body, limbs and antennae. Antennae have four segments, the first segment extremely long, the fourth enlarged. Ocelli are present. The scutellum is triangular. Ends of femora thickened, giving a knob-kneed appearance Elbowed antennae also clubbed at tips.
There are only 15 described species in Southern Africa.

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Berytidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 4:33 pm

Stilt Bug Metacanthus sp.
Family: Berytidae. Subfamily: Metacanthinae


Garden in Johannesburg

Metacanthus are typical, small (body length 5 mm) with green abdomen and tan thorax, and black swollen clubs at end of antennae.

On grasses and tree trunks.

AW Insect Book: Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae

Tue Oct 28, 2014 4:56 pm

Family Lygaeidae (Seed Bugs, Ground Bugs)
The Lygaeidae are members of the Lygaeoidea. A large family of medium-sized, usually quite slender or oval bugs capable of producing the classic bug stink. Most members of this family, the second largest in the order, feed on seeds by injecting salvia and sucking out the partly digested parts. Some species feed on insects. They can be distinguished from members of most similar families by the presence of simple eyes and by the veins in the membrane of each forewing. Under magnification can be seen to have only 3-4 (often faint) longitudinal veins on the soft membranous part of fore wings, thus distinguishable from Coreidae, which have at least 6 veins. Wings may be reduced, especially in ground-dwelling species.
About 400 species are known from the region, with many cosmopolitan genera.