AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Hymenoptera)

Mon Dec 31, 2012 12:05 am

AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Order: Hymenoptera)

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The main defining characteristic of the order Hymenoptera is that the front and hind wings are held together by a series of little hooks called hamuli. There are two suborders of Hymenoptera, the Symphyta (sawflies) and the Apocrita. The sawflies are a diverse group in the northern Hemisphere but here in southern Africa their diversity is low. The Apocrita are by far the most diverse of the two suborders and include all the wasps, bees and ants. The Apocrita have a distinctive constriction or waste in the abdomen which is a good field character for separating them from other insects. Some flies (Diptera) often look like bees or wasps but they can be immediately distinguished from Hymenoptera (and other insects) by having only a single pair of wings and not having the constriction in the abdomen.

AW Insect Book: Sawflies Wasps Bees Ants INDEX

Tue Oct 08, 2013 1:43 pm

AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Order: Hymenoptera)

INDEX to Order: Hymenoptera

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Suborder: Symphyta (Woodwasps, Horntails, Sawflies)

Suborder: Apocrita - Parasitica (Parasitic Wasps)
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Braconinae
Bracon sp. Braconid Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239727#p239727
Bracon sp. Braconid Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239728#p239728
Subfamily Doryctinae
Doryctine Braconid Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239732#p239732

Family Ichneumonidae (Ichneumon Wasps)
Subfamily Banchinae
Syzeuctus sp. Ichneumon Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239738#p239738
Subfamily Cremastinae
Cremastine Ichneumon Wasp viewtopic.php?p=247304#p247304
Subfamily Cryptinae
Cryptine Ichneumon Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239741#p239741
Cryptine Ichneumon Wasp viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&start=30#p247328
Subfamily Pimplinae
Camptotypus sp. Ichneumon Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239745#p239745

Suborder: Apocrita - Aculeata (Wasps, Ants, Bees)
Superfamily Chrysidoidea
Family Chrysididae (Cuckoo Wasps)
Subfamily Chrysidinae
Chrysis sp. Cuckoo Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239758#p239758
Chrysis sp. Cuckoo Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239760#p239760
Chrysis sp. Cuckoo Wasp viewtopic.php?p=239761#p239761

Superfamily Vespoidea
Family Formicidae (Ants)
Subfamily Formicinae
Anoplolepis custodiens Common Pugnacious Ant viewtopic.php?p=239780#p239780
Camponotus fulvopilosus Yellow-haired Sugar Ant viewtopic.php?p=240550#p240550
Camponotus maculatus group Spotted Sugar Ant viewtopic.php?p=240552#p240552
Oecophylla longinoda Weaver Ant, Tailor Ant viewtopic.php?p=240555#p240555
Polyrhachis schistacea Spiny Ant viewtopic.php?p=240559#p240559
Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae
Tetraponera natalensis Slender Ant viewtopic.php?p=240561#p240561
Tetraponera natalensis Slender Ant viewtopic.php?p=240563#p240563]
Subfamily Myrmicinae
Crematogaster peringueyi Cocktail Ant viewtopic.php?p=240566#p240566
Crematogaster sp. Cocktail Ant viewtopic.php?p=240565#p240565
Ocymyrmex sp. Myrmicine Hotrod Ant (Male) viewtopic.php?p=240567#p240567
Ocymyrmex resekhes Myrmicine Hotrod Ant viewtopic.php?p=240568#p240568
Pheidole megacephala Big-headed Ant, Brown House Ant viewtopic.php?p=240571#p240571
Subfamily Ponerinae
Pachycondyla analis Matabele Ant viewtopic.php?p=240577#p240577
Subfamily Dorylinae
Dorylus fulvus badius Red Driver Ant viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&start=50#p246271
Dorylus helvolus Red Driver Ant viewtopic.php?p=240579#p240579

Family Mutillidae (Velvet Ants)
Smicromyrme atropos Velvet Ant viewtopic.php?p=240595#p240595
Trogaspidia major Velvet Ant viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&p=240595#p265853

Family Pompilidae (Spider Hunting Wasps)
Subfamily Pepsinae
Cyphononyx atropos Giant Black Spider-hunting Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242603#p242603
Hemipepsis tamisieri Spider-hunting Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242604#p242604
Hemipepsis sp. Spider-hunting Wasp viewtopic.php?p=248141#p248141
Hemipepsis sp. Spider-hunting Wasp viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&start=50#p265858
Subfamily Pompilinae
Tachypompilus ignitus Spider-hunting Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242606#p242606

Family Scoliidae (Mammoth Wasps)
Campsomeriella sp. Campsomerine Mammoth Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242624#p242624
Campsomerine Mammoth Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242623#p242623

Family Vespidae (Paper, Potter & Pollen Wasps)
Subfamily Masarinae (Pollen Wasps)
Subfamily Eumeninae (Potter Wasps)
Afreumenes aethiopicus Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242874#p242874
Delta emarginatum Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242877#p242877
Delta lepeleterii Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&p=242877#p266045
Synagris sp. Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242879#p242879
Tricarinodynerus guerinii Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242884#p242884
Unidentified Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242886#p242886
Unidentified Potter Wasp viewtopic.php?p=242887#p242887
Subfamily Polistinae (Paper Wasps)
Belonogaster juncea colonialis Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244734#p244734
Belonogaster sp Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244735#p244735
Belonogaster sp Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244736#p244736
Polistes fastidiosus Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244740#p244740
Polistes sp. Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244741#p244741
Polistes sp. Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244742#p244742
Ropalidia cincta Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244760#p244760
Ropalidia sp. Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244763#p244763
Ropalidia sp. Paper Wasp viewtopic.php?p=244768#p244768
Subfamily Vespinae (Hornets)

Superfamily Apoidea (Bees and Sphecid Wasps)
Spheciformes (Sphecid wasps)

Family Ampulicidae

Family Crabronidae (Bee Wolves, Sand Wasps)
Subfamily Bembicinae
Bembix sp Sand Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245189#p245189
Gorytes natalensis, Pseudoplisus natalensis Flowerpot Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245207#p245207
Stizus sp Digger Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245617#p245617
Subfamily Crabroninae
Miscophus kriechbaumeri Digger Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245880#p245880
Miscophus Digger Wasps viewtopic.php?p=245879#p245879
Miscophus Digger Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245889#p245889
Larrine Wasp viewtopic.php?p=245891#p245891
Subfamily Philanthinae
Philanthus triangulum Bee-wolf viewtopic.php?p=245894#p245894
Philanthus sp. Bee-wolf viewtopic.php?p=245896#p245896
Philanthus sp. Bee-wolf viewtopic.php?f=247&t=3212&p=245896#p245924

Family Heterogynaidae

Family Sphecidae (Thread-waisted Wasps, Mud Daubers, Digger & Sand Wasps)
Subfamily Ammophilinae
Ammophila ferrugineipes Thread-waisted Wasp viewtopic.php?p=246890#p246890
Ammophila sp. Thread-waisted Wasp viewtopic.php?p=247116#p247116
Ammophila sp. Thread-waisted Wasp viewtopic.php?p=247118#p247118
Subfamily Chloriontinae
Subfamily Sceliphrinae
Chalybion spinolae False Mud Dauber viewtopic.php?p=247127#p247127
Subfamily Sphecinae
Sphex sp. Digger Wasp viewtopic.php?p=247132#p247132
Unidentified Sphecine Digger Wasp viewtopic.php?p=247138#p247138

Apiformes (Bees)

Family Andrenidae

Family Apidae (Honey, Cuckoo, Digger & Carpenter Bees)
Subfamily Apinae
Tribe Anthophorini
Amegilla calens Banded Bee viewtopic.php?p=251501#p251501
Amegilla capensis Banded Bee viewtopic.php?p=251502#p251502
Tribe Apini
Apis mellifera Honey Bee viewtopic.php?p=251504#p251504
Tribe Melectini
Thyreus sp. Cuckoo Bee viewtopic.php?p=251512#p251512
Thyreus pictus Cuckoo Bee viewtopic.php?p=251513#p251513
Subfamily Nomadininae
Subfamily Xylocopinae
Tribe Allodapini
Allodapula variegata Carpenter Bee viewtopic.php?p=251520#p251520
Allodapula sp. viewtopic.php?p=251521#p251521
Tribe Xylocopini
Xylocopa caffra Carpenter Bee viewtopic.php?p=251540#p251540
Xylocopa flavorufa Giant Carpenter Bee viewtopic.php?p=251543#p251543
Xylocopa inconstans Carpenter Bee viewtopic.php?p=251544#p251544
Xylocopa scioensis Carpenter Bee viewtopic.php?p=265192#p265192

Family Colletidae

Family Halictidae (Sweat Bees, Flower Bees)
Subfamily Nomiinae
Spatunomia rubra Halictid Bee viewtopic.php?p=265202#p265202
Subfamily Halictinae
Halictus jucundus Sweet Bee viewtopic.php?p=265245#p265245
Lasioglossum sp. Sweet Bee viewtopic.php?p=265247#p265247

Family Megachilidae (Leaf Cutting Bees, Mason Bees)
Subfamily Fideliinae
Subfamily Megachilinae
Coelioxys apicata Cuckoo Bee viewtopic.php?p=265263#p265263
Coelioxys circumscripta Cuckoo Bee viewtopic.php?p=265265#p265265
Megachile sp. Leaf Cutter Bee viewtopic.php?p=265268#p265268
Megachile sp. Leaf Cutter Bee viewtopic.php?p=265271#p265271
Megachile (Eutricharea) Leaf Cutter Bee viewtopic.php?p=265273#p265273
Unidentified Megachilid Bee viewtopic.php?p=265274#p265274

Family Melittidae

SUBORDER APOCRITA

Sat Dec 06, 2014 11:58 am

The Apocrita include all the wasps, bees and ants. This group is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" (petiole) formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen; the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, and is called the propodeum; the first and, sometimes, second segment may be narrowed to form a long or short waist.
Bees, and a few wasps, feed their young on a mixture of pollen and nectar; others parasitize insects or provide young with paralyzed insects or spiders.
The Apocrita are often split into two groups, Parasitica and Aculeata, but these are rankless groupings.
Parasitic Wasps (group Parasitica) lack sting but have venom glands which they apply for paralyzing the prey before laying eggs on/in it.

Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae

Sat Dec 06, 2014 12:27 pm

Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Braconids belong to superfamily Ichneumonoidea, which is characterized by the absence of costal cell in the fore wing. The absence of costal cell in combination with the absence of second recurrent vein in the fore wing and lack of articulation between abdominal segments 2 and 3 make these wasps a distinct group (called braconids within Hymenoptera.
Braconids are maller and stouter than ichneumon wasps, with brown, black, orange or bright red coloration. Abdomen of female may end in a long ovipositor, used in some species to drill into plant stems to reach the host. Wing venation is considerably reduced in some species, and there is a square cell on the fore wing. They have one or no recurrent veins, unlike other members of the Ichneumonoidea, which usually have two. The antennae have 16 segments or more; the hind trochanters have two segments.

Koinobiont or idiobiont endoparasitoids of insect immature stages or adults. As parasitoids they almost invariably kill their hosts. Braconids parasitize larvae and pupae, most commonly larva of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, but also Hemiptera nymphs and adults; Orthoptera and Psocoptera nymphs; adult Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Chrysopidae; Symphyta larvae; Diptera larva; Isoptera and Embioptera.

Links:
WaspWeb: Braconidae of the Afrotropical Region
Wikipedia - Braconidae
Hymenoptera of the world, an identification guide to families (PDF) page 358

Re: Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae, Braconinae

Sat Dec 06, 2014 12:46 pm

Subfamily Braconinae
Diagnosis: Forewing with more than 3 closed cells. Antennae with more than 16 segments. Costal cell absent.
Endoparasitoids (idiobiont) of concealed larvae of xylophagous and stem-boring Coleoptera and Lepidoptera and rarely of Diptera and Symphyta.

Links:
WaspWeb: Braconinae of the Afrotropical Region

AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Hymenoptera)

Sat Dec 06, 2014 1:20 pm

Braconid Wasp Possibly Bracon sp.
Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea. Family: Braconidae. Subfamily: Braconinae. Tribe: Braconini.

Image © ExFmem
Female, Kruger National Park

The genus Bracon is one of the largest in the family Braconidae, with over 2000 described species. Members of the genus Bracon can be distinguished by the venation of the hind wing, in which the subbasal cell is very small. All species of Bracon lack the occipital carina.
Most of these species are parasitoids of lepidopteran and coleopteran hosts.

Links: WaspWeb Bracon

AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Hymenoptera)

Sat Dec 06, 2014 1:44 pm

Braconid Wasp Most likely Bracon sp.
Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea. Family: Braconidae. Subfamily: Braconinae. Tribe: Braconini.

Image © BluTuna
Female with long ovipsitor, Johannesburg

Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae, Doryctinae

Sat Dec 06, 2014 2:14 pm

Subfamily Doryctinae
The Doryctinae or doryctine wasps are a large subfamily of braconid parasitic wasps (Braconidae) with a worldwide distribution. They are solitary ectoparasitoids (idiobiont) of xylophagus and stem-boring Coleoptera larvae.

Links:
WaspWeb: Doryctinae of the Afrotropical Region

AW Insect Book: Sawflies, Wasps, Bees & Ants (Hymenoptera)

Sat Dec 06, 2014 2:19 pm

Doryctine Braconid Wasp
Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea. Family: Braconidae. Subfamily: Doryctinae

Image © BluTuna
Kruger National Park

Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea, Ichneumonidae

Sat Dec 06, 2014 2:58 pm

Family Ichneumonidae (Ichneumon Wasps)
The Ichneumonidae is one of the most species rich families of all organisms with an estimated 60000 species in the world. An estimated 12100 species of Ichneumonidae occur in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara and including Madagascar).
Ichneumon wasps are mostly slender-bodied wasps with at least 16-segmented antennae that are more than half the length of the body, the middle ones sometimes white or yellow. In females, the abdomen may end in a long ovipositor used in some species to drill into plant stems to reach the host. Hind trochanters are 2-segmented. Most species are black, yellow or brown, or patterns of these colours. Vein 2m-cu of the forewing is present in 95% of Ichneumonidae. Base of cubital vein lacking, 1st submarginal and 1st discoidal cells fused. The resulting vein structure is sometimes called "horse head" shape. This boot-shaped submarginal cell in the forewing is diagnostic of the family. They are distinguished from the similar Braconidae by the absence of a square cell on the fore wing.
Ichneumonids parasitize larvae and pupae. Idiobiont or Koinobiont endo or ectoparasitoids of immature insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Rhaphidioptera, Trichoptera) or Chelcerata (Araneae and Pseudoscorpionida eggs, adult Araneae).

Links:
WaspWeb: Ichneumonidae of the Afrotropical Region