Africa Wild Bird Book - The Second Edition

Mon May 21, 2012 6:05 pm

All entries will be updated and information and photos can be added! This is an Africa Wild team effort and work in progress!

Please note: All entries will be edited and updated (additional photos and information will be added by moderators). New entries will be posted according to taxonomic order and the post date does not reflect the actual date of new posts.


Alphabetical Bird Index

Image

Index to Bird Orders & Families

Mon May 21, 2012 6:05 pm

The Africa Wild Bird Book classification below follows mostly the I O C World Bird List classification and taxonomic order proposed by the International Ornithological Congress.

ORDER STRUTHIONIFORMES
Family Struthionidae Ostriches

ORDER ANSERIFORMES
Family Anatidae Ducks, Geese and Swans

ORDER GALLIFORMES
Family Numididae Guineafowl
Family Phasianidae Pheasants and allies

ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES
Family Spheniscidae Penguins

ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES
Family Diomedeidae Albatrosses
Family Procellariidae Petrels, Shearwaters
Family Hydrobatidae Storm Petrels
Family Pelecanoididae Diving Petrels

ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES
Family Podicipedidae Grebes

ORDER PHOENICOPTERIFORMES
Family Phoenicopteridae Flamingos

PHAETHONTIFORMES
Family Phaethontidae Tropicbirds

ORDER CICONIIFORMES
Family Ciconiidae Storks

ORDER PELECANIFORMES
Family Threskiornithidae Ibises, Spoonbills
Family Ardeidae Herons, Bitterns
Family Scopidae Hamerkop
Family Balaenicipitidae Shoebill
Family Pelecanidae Pelicans

ORDER SULIFORMES
Family Fregatidae Frigatebirds
Family Sulidae Gannets, Boobies
Family Phalacrocoracidae Cormorants, Shags
Family Anhingidae Anhingas, Darters

ORDER ACCIPITRIFORMES
Family Sagittariidae Secretarybird
Family Pandionidae Osprey
Family Accipitridae Kites, Hawks and Eagles

ORDER FALCONIFORMES
Family Falconidae Falcons

ORDER OTIDIFORMES
Family Otididae Bustards

ORDER GRUIFORMES
Family Sarothruridae Flufftails
Family Heliornithidae Finfoots
Family Rallidae Rails, Crakes and Coots
Family Gruidae Cranes

ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES
Family Turnicidae Buttonquail
Family Burhinidae Stone-curlews, Thick-knees
Family Chionidae Sheathbills
Family Haematopodidae Oystercatchers
Family Dromadidae Crab-plover
Family Recurvirostridae Stilts, Avocets
Family Charadriidae Plovers
Family Rostratulidae Painted-snipes
Family Jacanidae Jacanas
Family Scolopacidae Sandpipers, Snipes
Family Glareolidae Coursers, Pratincoles
Family Laridae Gulls, Terns and Skimmers
Family Stercorariidae Skuas

ORDER PTEROCLIFORMES
Family Pteroclidae Sandgrouse

ORDER COLUMBIFORMES
Family Columbidae Pigeons, Doves

ORDER MUSOPHAGIFORMES
Family Musophagidae Turacos

ORDER CUCULIFORMES
Family Cuculidae Cuckoos

ORDER STRIGIFORMES
Family Tytonidae Barn Owls
Family Strigidae Owls

ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Family Caprimulgidae Nightjars

ORDER APODIFORMES
Family Apodidae Swifts

ORDER COLIIFORMES
Family Coliidae Mousebirds

ORDER TROGONIFORMES
Family Trogonidae Trogons

ORDER CORACIIFORMES
Family Coraciidae Rollers
Family Alcedinidae Kingfishers
Family Meropidae Bee-eaters

ORDER BUCEROTIFORMES
Family Upupidae Hoopoes
Family Phoeniculidae Wood Hoopoes
Family Bucerotidae Hornbills
Family Bucorvidae Ground Hornbills

ORDER PICIFORMES http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 60#p184060
Family Lybiidae African Barbets http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 62#p184062
Family Indicatoridae Honeyguides http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 82#p184082
Family Picidae Woodpeckers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 47#p184247

ORDER PSITTACIFORMES http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 65#p184265
Family Psittacidae Parrots http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 65#p184265

ORDER PASSERIFORMES http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 81#p184281
Family Eurylaimidae Broadbills viewtopic.php?p=361211#p361211
Family Pittidae Pittas
Family Platysteiridae Wattle-eyes, Batises http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 83#p184283
Family Prionopidae Helmetshrikes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 98#p184298
Family Malaconotidae Bushshrikes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 20#p184320
Family Campephagidae Cuckooshrikes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 96#p184396
Family Laniidae Shrikes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 04#p184404
Family Oriolidae Orioles http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 54#p184454
Family Dicruridae Drongos http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 60#p184460
Family Monarchidae Monarch Flycatchers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 99#p184499
Family Corvidae Crows http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 11#p184511
Family Chaetopidae Rockjumpers
Family Stenostiridae Fairy Flycatchers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 29#p196529
Family Paridae Tits http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 69#p184569
Family Remizidae Penduline Tits
Family Nicatoridae Nicators http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 00#p184600
Family Alaudidae Larks http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 17#p184617
Family Pycnonotidae Bulbuls http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 55#p184655
Family Hirundinidae Swallows, Martins http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 81#p184681
Family Macrosphenidae Crombecs, African Warblers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 37#p184737
Family Erythrocercidae Yellow Flycatchers
Family Phylloscopidae Leaf Warblers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 50#p184750
Family Acrocephalidae Marsh/Reed Warblers and Tree Warblers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 10#p184810
Family Locustellidae Grassbirds and Allies
Family Cisticolidae Cisticolas and Allies http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 21#p184921
Family Leiothrichidae Laughingthrushes, Babblers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 02#p185502
Family Sylviidae Sylviid Babblers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 14#p185514
Family Zosteropidae White-eyes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 42#p185542
Family Promeropidae Sugarbirds http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 46#p185646
Family Hyliotidae Hyliotas
Family Certhiidae Treecreepers
Family Sturnidae Starlings http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 57#p185657
Family Buphagidae Oxpeckers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 91#p186191
Family Turdidae Thrushes http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 98#p186198
Family Muscicapidae Chats, Old World Flycatchers http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 19#p186219
Family Nectariniidae Sunbirds http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 89#p186889
Family Passeridae Old World Sparrows http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 51#p186951
Family Ploceidae Weavers, Widowbirds http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 05#p187005
Family Estrildidae Waxbills and Allies http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 80#p187480
Family Viduidae Indigobirds, Whydahs http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 08#p187608
Family Motacillidae Wagtails, Pipits http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 14#p187814
Family Fringillidae Finches http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 83#p187883
Family Emberizidae Buntings http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... 28#p187928

ORDER STRUTHIONIFORMES Family Struthionidae (Ostrich)

Mon May 21, 2012 6:05 pm

ORDER STRUTHIONIFORMES
This is a small order with some very remarkable birds in it. It includes 5 families all of which were until recently given ordinal status in their own right, however, modern DNA information and cladistic analyses have brought them all together in one order. These five families are called Ratites and are all flightless birds without a keeled breastbone. They are all primarily herbivorous to omnivorous.
Other things that all members of the order have in common are nesting on the ground and incubation of the eggs mostly or entirely by the male.

Family Struthionidae (Ostrich)
There is only one species of Ostrich, Struthio camelus. Ostriches are distinguished from other ratites by having only 2 toes, instead of 3, remaining on their feet.

Struthio camelus Common Ostrich 001 http://www.sagr.co.za/forum/viewtopic.p ... =237#p2792

Common Ostrich

Mon May 21, 2012 6:06 pm

001. Common Ostrich Struthio camelus (Volstruis)
Order: Struthioniformes. Family: Struthionidae

Image
Adult female. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park

Description
Unmistakable. The largest and heaviest of all living birds, with long bare neck; legs flesh-pink becoming brighter during the breeding season.
Males are black with white wings and with white tails, sometimes rufous tipped, and white leggings. Females smaller and browner.
Juvenile resembles female, but smaller. Chicks unmistakable with 'hedgehog' down.

Distribution
Natural distribution is in the drier regions of Africa, including southern Africa, the Sahel, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania.

Image

Habitat
Open arid savanna woodland, shrublands and desert plains.

Diet Feeds on grasses, seeds and leaves. In dry areas succulent plants are also taken. Takes sometimes insects and small vertebrates.
Forages in groups, browsing close to ground.

Breeding
The breeding season and strategy of the ostrich vary with location. Where food is scarce, breeding pairs tend to be monogamous, but elsewhere breeding groups usually form, consisting of a territorial male together with a main or “major” hen and several secondary, “minor” hen. At the start of the breeding season, the male scrapes out a nest, a mere depression in the ground, and then attempts to attract females using an elaborate courtship display, which involves dropping to the ground, opening the wings and tail, shaking each wing alternately, and moving the tail up and down, while swaying the head and neck from side to side. The male will then approach the female with the wings open and the brightly coloured neck puffed out, while stamping the feet. After mating, the main female lays up to 11 creamy white eggs, while the other females lay around 2 to 6 eggs each, in the same nest, and may also lay eggs in other nests. The egg of the ostrich is the largest in the world, although relatively small in relation to the size of the bird, at around 16 cm in length and 1.5 kg in weight, with a 2 mm thick shell. Incubation is performed only by the male and the main female, and lasts between 42 and 46 days. Males incubate at night and females mostly by day. Any surplus eggs which the pair cannot cover are pushed out of the nest by the female, who is somehow able to recognise and retain her own, leaving about 20 eggs in total. The young are buff-coloured with black lines and specks, and leave the nest within the first three days. The pair may sometimes take chicks from other broods, and large crèches often form, escorted by one or more adults.

Call
Deep booming boo boo boooooh hoo given by male, mainly in breading season (not unlike lion's roar!).
Listen to Bird Call.

Status
Common resident.

Common Ostrich Photos

Mon May 21, 2012 6:07 pm

001. Common Ostrich Struthio camelus (Volstruis)

Image
Adult male

Image
Adult male with two adult females

Image © nan
Mating pair

Image
Chicks

Image © leachy

Image © ExFmem

Links:
Species Text Sabap1
Sabap2
Rael Loon, Hélène Loon, Sasol Birds: The Inside Story: Putting all their Eggs into one Basket

ORDER ANSERIFORMES

Mon May 21, 2012 6:08 pm

ORDER ANSERIFORMES
Anseriformes is an order of birds. It comprises about 150 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie Goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have subsequently become mainly terrestrial).
The ancestors of the Anseriformes developed the characteristic bill structure that they still share. The combination of the internal shape of the bill and a modified tongue acts as a suction pump to draw water in at the tip of the bill and expel it from the sides and rear; an array of fine filter plates called lamellae traps small particles, which are then licked off and swallowed.
All Anseriformes have this basic structure, but many have subsequently adopted alternative feeding strategies: geese graze on plants.

Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese and Swans)
The scientific family of birds that includes ducks, geese and swans. While there is much variation among birds in this family, they all share a variety of common characteristics, including: Well adapted for swimming, floating and diving. Spatulate bill includes a nail on the tip that may or may not be a different color. Relatively round body shape with short legs and longer necks than other types of birds.

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Duck 099 viewtopic.php?f=244&t=237&p=2790#p2797
Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous Duck 100 viewtopic.php?f=244&t=237#p2799
Thalassornis leuconotus White-backed Duck 101 viewtopic.php?p=2802#p2802
Cygnus olor Mute Swan viewtopic.php?p=2806#p2806
Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose 116 viewtopic.php?p=2810#p2810
Sarkidiornis melanotos Knob-billed Duck 115 viewtopic.php?p=2814#p2814
Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian Goose 102 viewtopic.php?p=2820=10#p2820
Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck (exotic)
Tadorna cana South African Shelduck 103 viewtopic.php?p=2825#p2825
Nettapus auritus African Pygmy-goose 114 viewtopic.php?p=2829#p2829
Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck 104 viewtopic.php?p=2832#p2832
Anas sparsa African Black Duck 105 viewtopic.php?p=2835#p2835
Anas capensis Cape Teal 106 viewtopic.php?p=2837p2837
Anas hottentota Hottentot Teal 107 viewtopic.php?p=2842#p2842
Anas erythrorhyncha Red-billed Teal 108 viewtopic.php?p=2846#p2846
Anas acuta Northern Pintail 109 viewtopic.php?p=2856#p2856
Anas querquedula Garganey 110 viewtopic.php?p=2860#p2860
Anas clypeata Northern Shoveler 111 viewtopic.php?p=2862#p2862
Anas smithii Cape Shoveler 112 viewtopic.php?p=2865#p2865
Anas platyrhynchos Mallard (introduced) viewtopic.php?p=2867#p2867
Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard 113 viewtopic.php?p=2874#p2874
Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck (introduced)
Oxyura maccoa Maccoa Duck 117 viewtopic.php?f=244&t=237&start=40#p243374

White-faced Duck

Mon May 21, 2012 6:09 pm

099. White-faced Duck Dendrocygna viduata (Nonnetjie-eend)
Order Anseriformes. Family: Dendrocygnidae

Image

Description
Has a long neck and white face. Black head and neck, black rear head, dark brown to black back and wings, black underparts, fine white barred flanks, chestnut neck, long grey bill. Dark plumage. It stands very erect. Sexes are alike.
Juveniles lack the white face, but have a smudged brown face and throat.

Distribution
Widespread: found in tropical America, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Within southern Africa, found mainly in Free State, NW Province, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and western Botswana.

Habitat
Inland waters, especially those with extensive shallows and emergent vegetation.

Diet
Aquatic vegetation, seeds, tubers, insects and molluscs.

Breeding
Monogamous. Nest consists of a scrape in the ground, lined with grass and other vegetable matter, and hidden among long grass, sedges or other vegetation. Nest is usually situated near the water's edge. Breeding season mainly the spring, summer and autumn periods (September to May), with peak in summer. The female lays 4-13 eggs (clutches of up to 16 eggs probably the result of more than one female laying), one egg being laid per day. Incubation probably starts after the clutch has been completed, lasts 26-30 days, and is undertaken by both sexes (but mainly the male). Young are diving for food by 14 days, are able to fly by 63 days, and have adult plumage by about 180 days. The parents accompany the young until even after they have started flying. They are especially protective of the young in their early development and keep them well hidden and attract predators away from the young by using the broken-wing act.

Call
Very vocal, especially in flight; 3 note whistle swee swee sweeu.
Listen to Bird Call.

Status
Common resident but highly nomadic; gregarious in non-breading season.

White-faced Duck Photos

Mon May 21, 2012 6:09 pm

099. White-faced Duck Dendrocygna viduata (Nonnetjie-eend)

Image © lowveldboy

Image © leachy

Image © Lisbeth
Juvenile

Image © ExFmem
Juvenile

Image © Lisbeth

Image © Lisbeth

Image © BluTuna

Links:
Species text Sabap1
Sabap2
Oiseaux net

Fulvous Duck

Mon May 21, 2012 6:10 pm

100. Fulvous Duck Dendrocygna bicolor (Fluiteend)
Order: Anseriformes. Family: Dendrocygnidae

Image

Description
Size 46-53 cm. It has a long grey bill, long head and longish legs, buff head and underparts, the latter reddish-tinged on the flanks with conspicuous white flank stripes. It has a dark crown, a golden, brown face, with a dark line down the centre of the nape and neck, and dark grey back and wings. The tail and wing patches are chestnut, and there is a white crescent on the upper tail which is visible in flight. Sexes are alike.
Juveniles have less contrasted flank and tail colouration.

Distribution
Widely distributed worldwide: occurs in tropical South America, southern North America, Africa, Madagascar and S Asia. Occurs in patches of India, Pakistan, the Arabian Gulf coast and sub-Saharan Africa, isolated along the coast of West Africa and found from Eritrea and Ethiopia through Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Angola to north-eastern parts of southern Africa. In southern Africa, concentrated mainly in Gauteng, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, N Botswana and Namibia (mainly in the north).

Image

Habitat
Inland water bodies, especially with abundant aquatic vegetation, coastal mudflats, salt works and sewage plants; it breeds on salt pans and saline lakes.

Movements
Highly nomadic and a breading migrant in some areas.

Behaviour
Gregarious in non-breading season.

Diet
It feeds almost entirely on cyanobacteria (blue green algae: Anabeana and Naticula halophila), but it will also eat small insects and crustaceans. Foraging is done in shallow water with its strangely-shaped bill upside-down. Its large tongue pumps water through the filaments (lamellae) on the edge of its bill, which filter out the cyanobacteria.

Breeding
Monogamous, colonial nester, breeding in colonies from tens to thousands. The nest is built by both sexes and consists of a scrape in the ground, lined with grass stems, leaves and reeds, and hidden in long grass within 50 m of water. Makes a more substantial, built-up nest if the site chosen is on marshy ground near the water's edge. Also known to nest up to 0.5 m above the water in thick reeds. Breeding season is virtually any time of year but generally after good rains. The female lays 6-13 eggs (probably laying at most one egg per day) after which she and her partner take turns in incubating them for 24-32 days before they hatch. The male usually incubates them at night. By 52 days the young are able to fly and by 60 days old they have almost complete juvenile plumage.

Call
2-syllabled whistle tooo-ee or tou-ee, usually in flight.
Listen to Bird Call.

Status:
Uncommon to fairly common resident.

Fulvous Duck Photos

Mon May 21, 2012 6:10 pm

100. Fulvous Duck Dendrocygna bicolor (Fluiteend)

Image © leachy
Kruger National Park, Sunset Dam

Image © PRWIN
Marievale Bird Sanctuary, Gauteng

Links:
Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
Sabap2
Biodiversity Explorer
Newman's Birds of Southern Africa