Re: Malaria

Sun Jan 22, 2017 11:16 am

Hmmmm..... always a tough decision --- should we or should we not take precautionary measures -O- And there are a number of such that can be taken \O .

One of these are quite effective is Oxytetracycline dehydrate , available both in tablet form as well as injectable - you need to get it from your doctor of course :O^ .

It is an anti-biotic , and is used extensively for various conditions etc for animals , and as such is readily available as an animal medicine from the local farmers co-op ( I keep a whole bottle of it in my fridge here on the farm ) . according to the label it can be used for conditions treatment of : tick-borne gallsickness ( anaplasmosis ) , heart-water , pneumonia , footrot , joint-ill , navel-ill , pink-eye ( bovine kerato-conjunctivitis ) in cattle , sheep and goats .

And I have often wondered --- should I , or should I not .............. :O^ =O: =O: =O:

Re: Malaria

Sun May 14, 2017 8:03 am

Malaria season is usually over by March but the late onset of winter this year, a result of climate change, has contributed to an “unusual” situation where patients are still being treated for the disease even though we are well into May.

“In malaria endemic areas like Limpopo there is an upsurge every few years – but usually a little earlier. We expect a peak in cases in January, February and March,” said Professor Lucille Blumberg, deputy director for the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD).

But this year, temperatures remained high and the rains came late, with heavy downpours well into April, creating the ideal environment for malaria-carrying mosquitos to breed.

“Heavy rainfall, high temperatures and high humidity – unusual for this time of year – was a driving factor in this outbreak,” she said.

By the end of March, reported the NICD, almost 10,000 cases of malaria had been reported across the country, almost 50% up on 2016. And it did not end there. In the last week of April alone, another 1,251 more cases were reported and then another 876 cases in the first week of May. The final total for the season is not yet known.

Blumberg said it would not be fair to compare this year’s rate to last year as the drought of 2015/16 meant that last year’s figures were “unusually” low. It is, however, one of the biggest outbreaks since the mammoth outbreak in 2000 – which saw almost 70,000 people with malaria.

Even with the unusual weather pattern, in ordinary circumstances the outbreak wouldn’t create panic of the kind seen in the heavily affected Vhembe and Mopani districts in Limpopo. But this April there was an international shortage of a common oral malaria drug that nurses in clinics use to treat the majority of malaria cases. Hundreds of patients, who would usually be sent home with a three-day course of the drug, Coartem, were instead referred to hospitals.

“This resulted in three hospitals; Donald Fraser, Malamulele and Nkhensani treating more patients than their capacity. Various other hospitals were also congested as the overflow of patients were referred,” said Phillip Kruger, an official from the Limpopo Department of Health.

Nkhesani Hospital in Giyani, in the north-eastern part of Limpopo, was so inundated that patients being treated with anti-malaria drips were sleeping on the floor. Tents were set up outside of the hospital to assist but were, in the end, not used.

Limpopo Health Department spokesperson Derick Kganyago told Health-e News that without Coartem, patients had to be treated with the next best option: a seven-day intravenous drip of quinine requiring in-hospital treatment. This treatment is usually reserved for only the most complicated and serious malaria cases.

Another “unfortunately timed” setback, according to Blumberg, was that a large batch of the health department’s Coartem stock expired on March 31, exacerbating the situation. This would not have been a problem if the outbreak occurred during the traditional malaria season.

“It was made even more difficult by the fact that this happened over the long weekend at the end of April,” said Blumberg. “But hospitals in the province responded remarkably well under the circumstances and brought in additional staff to manage the high patient load.”

According to Kruger, the pressure on the health system started to ease when Coartem became available from manufacturers and was dispatched to clinics from May 2. Blumberg said the delay has had a “knock-on” effect and the department is now “playing catch-up”.

At the same time, there was a shortage of test kits used to diagnose malaria quickly and easily in clinics. This put even more pressure on hospitals, which had to take blood samples and test them in laboratories.

Earlier this week, Kganyago confirmed that a new batch of rapid tests had arrived at the Limpopo provincial depot and were being distributed to clinics.

“We are pushing the drugs and rapid tests through and the numbers have come down in Limpopo, there’s no doubt about that. Transmission has decreased and the whole system is recovering,” said Blumberg.

Outbreaks of malaria declared in some neighbouring countries including Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique “contributing to increased transmission in South Africa”, said Kruger.

The impact of regional outbreaks and cross-border migration, especially over Easter, are aggravating factors largely outside the health department’s control: “There is huge movement across the borders, especially over the Easter period, which is a challenge,” said Blumberg.

Much of the pandemonium could have been averted if a newer and more effective anti-malarial drug was also available at facilities. The medicine, artesunate, like intravenous quinine, is usually only used for the most severe cases. But it works rapidly and is easier to administer. Instead of remaining in hospital for a week, as happens with quinine therapy, patients would only need to be admitted for a few days or not at all.*

“However, it isn’t registered for use in South Africa and is only available with special permission from the Director-General of the National Department of Health. It is available, but not everywhere,” Blumberg said.

The Medicines Control Council (MCC), which has been criticised in the past for lengthy medicine registration delays, is not to blame in this case, according to Blumberg.

“There have been issues on the producer side. But the MCC has been very supportive over the past year and we expect it to be registered in time for next year’s malaria season,” she said.

The major “attack” on malaria is indoor residual spraying – where the department sends people into homes in areas where malaria is expected, to spray walls with a highly-effective mosquito insecticide. Spraying happens between September and February each year.

But while there were reports that the recent outbreak was as a result of residents refusing to allow workers to spray inside their homes, Kruger said that over 80% of houses had been sprayed, which was enough to ensure effective coverage.

“Indoor residual spraying is one of the best interventions to break malaria transmission. In communities with low malaria transmission, when no cases are reported in consecutive years, communities do resist spraying from time to time,” said Kruger.

But Blumberg admitted that there were some gaps: “I think we need to revise our spraying programme. It is very effective but it is also very labour-intensive and expensive,” she said.

“When we have successes people think we can cut back, but we can’t. We need resources for prevention and monitoring so we can watch constantly and intervene quickly.”

Nkhensani Hospital has had to absorb much of the burden in the province, serving over 90 villages. Last week an average of 40 patients per day were being admitted with malaria, according to hospital CEO Ruth Shilumani.

“Since the outbreak last week, we have been struggling to cope with the high number of patients being admitted with malaria, which resulted in the shortage of beds at the hospital. But now the situation is better as daily we are discharging high numbers of patients,” she said.

The outbreak is at last in its dying stages, but there have been a number of casualties, although the department could not confirm the numbers of deaths. DM

https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article ... RfzA8YlG00

Re: Malaria

Mon May 15, 2017 9:25 pm

Glad, I hadn't know of those numbers before our trip. We didn't take any malaria pills... Should be okay by now though O**

Re: Malaria

Tue May 16, 2017 7:35 am

Richprins wrote:...........

The major “attack” on malaria is indoor residual spraying – where the department sends people into homes in areas where malaria is expected, to spray walls with a highly-effective mosquito insecticide. Spraying happens between September and February each year.

But while there were reports that the recent outbreak was as a result of residents refusing to allow workers to spray inside their homes, Kruger said that over 80% of houses had been sprayed, which was enough to ensure effective coverage.

“Indoor residual spraying is one of the best interventions to break malaria transmission. In communities with low malaria transmission, when no cases are reported in consecutive years, communities do resist spraying from time to time,” said Kruger.

But Blumberg admitted that there were some gaps: “I think we need to revise our spraying programme. It is very effective but it is also very labour-intensive and expensive,” she said.





Note , even today , DDT is still the most effective mosquito spray , and science have not yet been able to develop a really effective alternative to DDT 0*\ .

Re: Malaria

Tue May 16, 2017 11:30 am

I thought that the mosquitoes had become ressistend to DDT :-?

Re: Malaria

Fri May 19, 2017 2:45 pm

ALERT: Kruger issues malaria warning

Heavy rains received this year have increased the risk of Malaria in South Africa's Kruger National Park.

Usually classified as a low-risk areas, despite being one of the Malaria endemic areas in this country, the Park is now advising visitors to take the necessary precautionary measures against the disease.

"There are pools of water in abundance everywhere and the Park is experiencing Malaria cases especially in the northern part of the Park," SANParks says.

SEE: Malaria: What travellers need to know

In March the province of Limpopo also issued an advisory to for travellers to take the necessary precautions to avoid contracting the disease, which can be fatal is not treated correctly.

“Malaria seems to be on the brink of an outbreak lately despite the fact that we almost in winter now with some of the country’s provinces reporting hundreds of people who have been admitted and tested positive for the disease in hospitals,"says SANParks Acting Head of Communications, William Mabasa.

Precautionary measures include the use of prophylaxes and vaccinations in consultation with their doctors to prevent the possibility of contracting Malaria.

"By using repellants on the skin, keeping the gauze door and windows close and also ensuring these are not broken as well as spraying the inside of the hut/bungalow with insecticide, the risk of Malaria in the Park can be reduced significantly."

Malaria season is usually October to April

Mabasa also noted that “although Malaria can be contracted at any time of year, March and April are the highest risk period; however this year seems to be slightly different. With winter approaching, mosquitoes which are carriers of the parasite causing Malaria, should begin to hibernate and the situation shall possibly improve."

NOTE: There are medical doctors permanently based in Skukuza, Kruger National Park’s main camp and the public can also consult them for information and advice prior to their visit to the Park on telephone number +27 13 735 5638


What you need to know about Malaria

Malaria is a tropical disease caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium. The infection occurs when an infected female mosquito bites you, or when you have a blood transfusion from an infected donor or use infected needles by a drug user. - see Health24

What are the symptoms?

According to Fedhealth depending on the species of mosquito, symptoms can take from seven to 35 days to start. It can be as long as six months or as short as five days in people who acquire it through blood transfusion or needle prick.

Symptoms include:

Tiredness and fatigue

Abrupt chills and fever (39° to 41° centigrade), which may cause profuse sweating

Quickened pulse

Headache

Nausea

Muscle pains

Malaria is often also incorrectly diagnosed as the flu, so you need to keep a lookout for flu-like symptoms on your return. If you don’t treat it, malaria can quickly become life-threatening, by disrupting the blood supply to your vital organs – so it’s vital that if you experience any of these symptoms you head straight to your doctor for a diagnosis, says Fedhealth.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

According to Fedhealth to diagnose malaria, your doctor does a blood test and you may be hospitalised for observation. Malaria can be cured with prescription drugs but the type of drugs and length of treatment depends on the kind of malaria, where you were infected, your age, and how severely ill you are.

Another concern is that in some parts of the world, these pesky - sometimes deadly - parasites have developed resistance to a number of malaria medications. But don’t worry too much because in general, early treatment of uncomplicated malaria produces excellent results.

Where are the high-risk malaria areas?

According to the medical scheme, in terms of Southern Africa: Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana all have regions which hold varying degrees of malaria risk as does South Africa. But check this all with your doctor or at a travel clinic before heading away on your trip.

SEE: ALERT: Limpopo on high alert as Botswana issues Malaria warning

How do I prevent malaria?


Medication

Fedhealth says the first thing is to check whether the area you are travelling to is a malaria area. And if it is you need to take preventative medication.

"No drug therapy is 100% effective, but some can go a long way to preventing malaria." visit Health24 for full details.

It is important to note that the medical scheme says currently, the drug Malarone - a combination of atovaquone and proguanil - is the "drug of choice when travelling to areas where chloroquine-resistant malaria exists."

"However, it’s best to consult your doctor before making any decisions on which medication to take. They will also tell you when to start taking the medication, as many courses should start about a week before you head off on holiday, and continue for a period after your return."

Avoiding mosquitoes

The other main way of preventing malaria is to try and avoid getting bitten by these buzzing and annoying creatures:

Wear clothing with long sleeves and cover your ankles – especially at dawn and dusk, when mosquitoes are most active
Use long-lasting insecticide sprays inside your hotel room
Ensure that wire or gauze screens on all doors and windows are closed
Keep a fan on in the room during the night – the current seems to put off the mosquitoes
Apply mosquito repellents directly to the skin
Use mosquito netting over the beds
Try and spend evenings indoors rather than outdoors, as you’re much less likely to get bitten by mosquitoes.

NOTE: Anyone who says, “I’m too small to make a difference”, doesn’t know how annoying and often deadly a mosquito can be.

Re: Malaria

Fri May 19, 2017 7:42 pm

:ty: Lis!
Ja, I got my malaria in May..almost no more Richprins...very close! O-/

same thing, thought it was flu.

Foreigners must check big time, and tell their doctors back home to scan for malaria, and force them to recheck and send to major labs, as they won't know... :twisted:

Nowadays 3 weeks should be stretched to 6 weeks, IMO? Nothing to lose with new strains.

Re: Malaria

Mon Sep 11, 2017 6:17 pm

Department of Health issues another malaria warning
This followed after an increase amount of cases were reported in the Ehlanzeni district.
September 6, 2017


An increased amount of malaria infections have been reported in the Nkomazi, Bushbuckridge and Mbombela sub-districts respectively. The cases are exceeding those of last year.

2016 was noted with severe drought which is believed to be the main contributor to the drop in infections and increased rainfall in April this year saw an increase in malaria cases. The department has scaled up interventions to make sure that the cases are detected early and treated as soon as they present in the facilities. It has already started its annual Indoor Residual Spraying programme for targeted structures in the affected areas.

Anyone showing the following signs and symptoms should immediately visit the local health facility to be tested and treated:

• Flu-like illness / Cough
• Fever
• Headache
• Cold shivers / hot sweats)
• General body pains
• Weakness (general body weakness)
• Dizziness
• Loss of appetite / Poor feeding
• Diarrheoa, Nausea and Vomiting
• Flu-like illness / Cough

http://hazyviewherald.co.za/214794/depa ... a-warning/

Re: Malaria

Mon Sep 11, 2017 7:57 pm

Not nice O-/